It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for Tr ES -1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.
They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam Tanzania. Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year.
The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data , estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study.
Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE , using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors.
Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals.
Further model. Yap1 is dispensable for self-renewal but required for proper differentiation of mouse embryonic stem ES cells. Yap1 is a transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway. The importance of Yap1 in early cell fate decision during embryogenesis has been well established, though its role in embryonic stem ES cells remains elusive.
Here, we report that Yap1 plays crucial roles in normal differentiation rather than self-renewal of ES cells. Yap1-depleted ES cells maintain undifferentiated state with a typical colony morphology as well as robust alkaline phosphatase activity. These cells also retain comparable levels of the core pluripotent factors, such as Pou5f1 and Sox2, to the levels in wild-type ES cells without significant alteration of lineage-specific marker genes.
Conversely, overexpression of Yap1 in ES cells promotes nuclear translocation of Yap1, resulting in disruption of self-renewal and triggering differentiation by up-regulating lineage-specific genes. Moreover, Yap1-deficient ES cells show impaired induction of lineage markers during differentiation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Yap1 is a required factor for proper differentiation of mouse ES cells, while remaining dispensable for self-renewal.
PEGylated recombinant human endostatin M 2 ES exhibited prolonged serum half-life and enhanced antitumor activity when compared with endostatin. A pre-clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety of M 2 ES in rats. These pre-clinical safety data contribute to the initiation of the ongoing clinical study. Published by Elsevier Inc. This object has been detected at hight energies GeV , so it is of interest to characterize its behavior in the optical range.
We obtained the light curves in B, V and R bands through dif- ferential photometry, with a time resolution of 15 minutes over 8 nights. We did not detect inter-night variability, but we detected a marginally sig- nificant variability in temporal scales of a few days. The source was selected from the compilation of Costamante, L. The loss-of-allele assay for ES cell screening and mouse genotyping. Targeting vectors used to create directed mutations in mouse embryonic stem ES cells consist, in their simplest form, of a gene for drug selection flanked by mouse genomic sequences, the so-called homology arms that promote site-directed homologous recombination between the vector and the target gene.
The VelociGene method for the creation of targeted mutations in ES cells employs targeting vectors, called BACVecs, that are based on bacterial artificial chromosomes. Compared with conventional short targeting vectors, BacVecs provide two major advantages: 1 their much larger homology arms promote high targeting efficiencies without the need for isogenicity or negative selection strategies; and 2 they enable deletions and insertions of up to kb in a single targeting event, making possible gene-ablating definitive null alleles and other large-scale genomic modifications.
Because of their large arm sizes, however, BACVecs do not permit screening by conventional assays, such as long-range PCR or Southern blotting, that link the inserted targeting vector to the targeted locus. To exploit the advantages of BACVecs for gene targeting, we inverted the conventional screening logic in developing the loss-of-allele LOA assay, which quantifies the number of copies of the native locus to which the mutation was directed.
In a correctly targeted ES cell clone, the LOA assay detects one of the two native alleles for genes not on the X or Y chromosome , the other allele being disrupted by the targeted modification. We apply the same principle in reverse as a gain-of-allele assay to quantify the copy number of the inserted targeting vector. The LOA assay reveals a correctly targeted clone as having lost one copy of the native target gene and gained one copy of the drug resistance gene or other inserted marker.
The combination of these quantitative assays makes LOA genotyping unequivocal and amenable to automated scoring. We use the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Price, A. The AAVSO compiled 10, CCD observations of the suspected exoplanet transit object Tr ES -1b covering seven complete transit windows, three windows of partial coverage, and coverage of baseline non-transit periods. Visual inspection of the light curves reveals the presence of slight humps at the egress points of some transits.
A boot strap Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the data to confirm that the humps exist to a statistically significant degree. However, it does not rule out systemic effects which will be tested with campaigns in the observing season. Abstract only The star field around the exoplanet Tr ES -3b has potential for finding unknown variable stars.
A light curve for each star was created and are being evaluated for variability and periodicity. A python program is in development to help complete the analysis by automating some of the process. Several stars in the field appear to be variable and are being further analyzed to determine a period and to classify the type of variable. According to an amendment of German social security legislation, the AGn ES concept of delegation of certain tasks of medical care, especially house calls, by general practitioners GPs to qualified practice employees AGn ES employees , will be transferred into the regular German health care system from January onward.
The concept was developed to support GPs in regions with imminent gaps in primary care. Patient data, the specifically delegated and all other activities carried out by the AGn ES employees in the AGn ES projects were digitally documented. A curriculum to qualify the AGn ES employees and to define the requirements needed was developed. A legal assessment of all delegated activities was carried out, and an economical model to calculate the necessary allowance was calculated.
In seven model projects in four federal states in Germany, 11, house calls were carried out involving 1,, mostly multimorbid, patients mean age: A modular structured curriculum, considering the basic education and acquired competences, was developed. It allows for an individual qualification of the AGn ES employees. The result of the legal assessment was the central relevance of the qualification of the practice employees according to the AGn ES curriculum as the essential condition for carrying out the entire range of activities of the AGn ES concept.
The economic model revealed euro The underlying model referred to underserved regions. A successful transfer of the AGn ES concept with a high standard of quality into regular health-care depends on several factors. Of particular importance is the specific qualification of the practice employees, which is a central legal condition for the delegation of medical tasks from GPs to AGn Es employees.
A second determining factor is also an adequate reimbursement within. Very Strong 0. Effective oligonucleotide-mediated gene disruption in ES cells lacking the mismatch repair protein MSH3. We have previously demonstrated that site-specific insertion, deletion or substitution of one or two nucleotides in mouse embryonic stem cells ES cells by single-stranded deoxyribo-oligonucleotides is several hundred-fold suppressed by DNA mismatch repair MMR activity. Here, we have investigated whether compound mismatches and larger insertions escape detection by the MMR machinery and can be effectively introduced in MMR-proficient cells.
We identified several compound mismatches that escaped detection by the MMR machinery to some extent, but could not define general rules predicting the efficacy of complex base-pair substitutions. As these cells have no overt mutator phenotype and Msh3-deficient mice do not develop cancer, Msh3-deficient ES cells can be used for oligonucleotide-mediated gene disruption. As an example, we present disruption of the Fanconi anemia gene Fancf. Body-art practices among undergraduate medical university students in dar es salaam, Tanzania, Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults.
Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. While 7. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts.
Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks. Global fits of the transit photometry, radial velocities, and known transit times are used to obtain a self-consistent set of refined parameters for this system, including updated stellar and planetary parameters.
Special attention is paid to fitting for limb darkening and eccentricity.
Moreover, many early supposed periodicity claims for blazar light curves need to be reevaluated assuming red noise. An analysis of the transit times of Tr ES -1b. The presence of a second planet in a known, transiting-planet system will cause the time between transits to vary. These variations can be used to constrain the orbital elements and mass of the perturbing planet. We analyse the set of transit times of the Tr ES -1 system given in Charbonneau et al. We find no convincing evidence for a second planet in the Tr ES -1 system from those data. By further analysis, we constrain the mass that a perturbing planet could have as a function of the semi-major axis ratio of the two planets and the eccentricity of the perturbing planet.
We compare the sensitivity of this technique to the mass of the perturbing planet with future, high-precision radial velocity measurements. Basic analysis of climate and urban bioclimate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Better understanding of urban microclimate and bioclimate of any city is imperative today when the world is constrained by both urbanisation and global climate change. Urbanisation generally triggers changes in land cover and hence influencing the urban local climate.
Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania is one of the fast growing cities. Assessment of its urban climate and the human biometeorological conditions was done using the easily available synoptic meteorological data covering the period The current results, though considered as preliminary to the ongoing urban climate study in the city, provide an insight on how urban climate research is of significant importance in providing useful climatic information for ensuring quality of life and wellbeing of city dwellers. Family perceptions of intellectual disability: Understanding and support in Dar es Salaam.
When attempting to understand the construct of intellectual disability in different contexts, speaking to family members in addition to the individual with the disability may provide new insight about understandings of and responses to intellectual disability in society and may help to identify the forms of support that are available or needed to ensure the quality of life of people with disabilities. This article outlines and discusses interviews that were conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, with family members of children and adults with intellectual disabilities.
These interviews explore how families came to understand that their child had an intellectual disability; the availability of family support; and family hopes and dreams for the future, and were a part of a wider exploratory study that gathered insight from individuals with disabilities, families, and other providers of support to explore understandings and perceptions of disability in Dar es Salaam.
Understanding family experiences will help researchers, policy makers, non-governmental organisations, and others to identify family strengths and family support needs which can ultimately improve family quality of life and the quality of life of the member with a disability. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania. Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing.
It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones.
Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion leads to a low remaining casualty risk.
Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability.
Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts.
Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max.
On the other. Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste.
A worksite cafeteria and a commercial upscale restaurant in a large US Midwestern metropolitan area. Adult worksite employees and restaurant patrons. These outcomes could serve as the foundation for future studies to determine strategies to enhance acceptance of reduced-portion menu items in restaurant settings. Teratocarcinomas induced by embryonic stem ES cells lacking vimentin: an approach to study the role of vimentin in tumorigenesis. Vimentin is a class III intermediate filament protein widely expressed in the developing embryo and in cells of mesenchymal origin in the adult. Vimentin knock-out mice develop and reproduce without any obvious defect.
This is an unexpected finding in view of the high degree of conservation of the vimentin gene among vertebrates. However, it does not exclude the possibility of a role for vimentin in pathological conditions, like tumorigenesis. To address this question directly, we have used a teratocarcinoma model involving the injection of ES cells into syngeneic mice. The absence of vimentin did not affect ES cell morphology, viability or growth rate in vitro. No significant differences were found in either tumour incidence, size or vascularization of teratocarcinomas obtained with all possible combinations.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that in this model vimentin is not essential for efficient tumour growth and differentiation in vivo. Multi-band transit observations of the Tr ES -2b exoplanet. We present a new data set of transit observations of the Tr ES -2b exoplanet taken in spring , using the 1. Using the multi-band BUSCA data we demonstrate that the multicolor light curves can be consistently fitted with a given set of limb darkening coefficients without the need to adjust these coefficients, and further, we can demonstrate that wavelength dependent stellar radius changes must be small as expected from theory.
Our new observations provide further evidence for a change of the orbit inclination of the transiting extrasolar planet Tr ES -2b reported previously. We examine in detail possible causes for this inclination change and argue that the observed change should be interpreted as nodal regression. While the assumption of an oblate host star requires an unreasonably large second harmonic coefficient, the existence of a third body in the form of an additional planet would provide a very natural explanation for the observed secular orbit change.
Given the lack of clearly observed short-term variations of transit timing and our observed secular nodal regression rate, we predict a period between approximately 50 and days for a putative perturbing planet of Jovian mass. Such an object should be detectable with present-day radial velocity RV techniques, but would escape detection through transit timing variations.
Photometric transit data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc. The damaged area comprises 9. They further suggest that the surge facies beyond the channel margins correlate laterally with a finer-grained sublayer locally developed at the base of the block-and-ash flow facies.
Eyewitness reports suggest that the emplacement of the block-and-ash flow facies in the distal part of the Boyong river may have followed, by a short time interval, the destruction and deposition of the surge facies at Turgo village. The stratigraphy is in accord with the eyewitness reports.
This flow separation enabled the surge current to shortcut over the landscape and to emplace its deposit even as the block-and-ash flow continued its tortuous southward movement in the Boyong channel. We conclude that Mrs. Edith Fraenkel is the most important figure of Brazilian nursing, thanks to her immeasurable work as a leader of the profession, nationally and internationally. We have used the photohadronic model and a template extragalactic background light model to explain the average spectrum which fits the flare data well.
Our model prediction can constrain the SSC flux of the leptonic models in the quiescent state. The program consisted of 24 oral presentations, 70 posters, and 2 panel discussions. The attendance of the Workshop was comparable to or larger than previous workshops and participation was impressively diverse. The participants came from all over the world and included undergraduate students, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and senior scientists.
Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam. Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city.
Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city Tanzania. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks.
The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation.
Louis - Senegal. In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal unregulated urbanization.
The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has. Cloning and high level expression of gene encoding ES antigen from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. The partial structure gene encoding ES antigen derived from Trichinella spiralis TSP muscle larvae was cloned, characterized, and expressed in E. The target DNA 0. Based on the analysis with the RE digestion, the fragment was cloned into the fusion expression vector pEX31C.
It was shown that a kind of 37kDa fusion protein was expressed in E. These findings suggest that the recombinant protein is a potentially valuable antigen both for immunodiagnosis and vaccine development of trichinellosis. Five newly observed transit light curves of the Tr ES -3 planetary system are presented.
Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations TTVs are investigated. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.
Side impact collision is one of the leading causes of death. Protection of people during lateral collision is challenging because of relatively small space available to restraint occupant compared to front. Hence, it is imperative to protect the occupants in side collision. It is a function of vehicle type and restraints for side protection. This paper focuses on evaluation of injury parameters of the ES II dummy during the lateral collision of different vehicles with different spaces, sections and materials.
Thus the comparison will enable us to understand the sensitivity of space, B-pillar section and material which affects the injury parameters. This study will help automotive engineers to design side impact crashworthy vehicles. Badowski, Natalie; Castro, Cynthia M.
Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children.
The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease.
Rappe supervised the organization of the conference, before, during, and after the meeting itself. The national organizing committee set the technical program of talks, and provided support and advice in various ways. The conference was well-attended see Section III. An important feature of this conference was a series of panel discussions see Section IV to discuss the field of electronic structure and to set new directions.
The host institution, the University of Pennsylvania, provided a supportive environment for this meeting see Section VI. During this monitoring, the 0. The Team eS project aims to acclimate pre teens to scientific concepts subtly, with fun, accessible, and engaging art and activities hosted at public community festivals, online at a dedicated website, and using social media.
Our festivals will be centered around an interactive art installation inspired by a scientific concept. We hope to provide a positive experience inspired by science that these teens can reflect upon when encountering similar concepts in the future, especially in settings like a classroom where fear and anxiety can cloud interest or performance. We want to empower teens to not feel lost or out of the loop - we want to remove the fear of facing science. Summertime conditions of a muddy estuarine environment: the Es CoSed project contribution. As part of the Estuarine Cohesive Sediments Es CoSed project, a field experiment was performed in a highly engineered environment, acting as a natural laboratory, to study the physico-chemical properties of estuarine sediments and the associated hydro-morphodynamics during different seasons.
The present contribution focuses on the results obtained from the summertime monitoring of the most downstream part of the Misa River Senigallia, Italy. The measured hydrodynamics suggested a strong interaction between river current, wave forcing and tidal motion; flow velocities, affected by wind waves traveling upstream, changed significantly along the water column in both direction and magnitude. Surficial salinities in the estuary were low in the upper reaches of the estuary and exceeded 10 psu before the river mouth.
Huperzine A HupA is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation.
However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi.
A final concentration of 0. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.
We model our radial-velocity data assuming a circular orbit and find a planetary mass of 1. Our radial-velocity observations rule out line-bisector variations that would indicate a specious detection resulting from a blend of an eclipsing binary system. Tr ES -5 orbits one of the faintest stars with transiting planets found to date from the ground and demonstrates that precise photometry and followup spectroscopy are possible, albeit challenging, even for such faint stars. Knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Childhood obesity has increased over the past two decades. Child obesity is likely to persist through adulthood and increases the risk of non-communicable diseases NCDs later in life. This study assessed knowledge and attitudes towards obesity among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken using standard procedures.
A total of children were included in the analysis. The mean age of the participants was Half of the children Less than half However, a good number of the children Majority of them had negative attitude towards obesity and various factors leading to or resulting from childhood obesity. Knowledge about childhood obesity among primary school children is moderate and have negative attitude towards obesity. Integrating educational programs early in primary schools may be an effective strategy to impact knowledge about obesity and other non-communicable diseases early in childhood. This algorithm is able to deduce the nature of the flaws to the file granularity, that is of high value to the end-user.
This new platform has been designed keeping in mind usability by end-users specialized in the data publishing process or other scientists requiring feedback on reliability of data required for their work. To this end, a specific set of rules and a code of conduct has been defined. A validation process ensures the quality of this newly introduced errata meta-data , an authentication safe-guard was implemented to prevent tampering with the archived data, and a wide variety of tools were put at users disposal to interact safely with the platform including a command-line client and a dedicated front-end.
Identification of genes involved in serum tolerance in the clinical strain Cronobacter sakazakii ES 5. Cronobacter spp. Serum resistance is a crucial virulence factor for the development of systemic infections, including bacteremia. It was the aim of the current study to identify genes involved in serum tolerance in a selected Cronobacter sakazakii strain of clinical origin. Screening of random transposon knock out mutants of a C.
Identification of the affected sites in mutants displaying reduced serum resistance revealed genes encoding for surface and membrane proteins as well as regulatory elements or chaperones. Additionally, knock out mutants with enhanced serum tolerance were observed. Examination of respective transposon insertion loci revealed regulatory repressor elements, coding regions for chaperones and efflux systems as well as the coding region for the protein YbaJ. Coal use in particular increases almost 10 fold by and there is a continued reliance on oil in the transportation sector.
The increase in fossil fuel prices about a doubling of both natural gas and oil prices by mid-century triggers also some growth for nuclear electricity and hydro power, especially in the longer-term. Overall, however, fossil fuels continue to dominate the primary energy portfolio over the entire time horizon of the RCP8. We see that the scenario has been built taking into account estimates of coal reserves, and building in assumptions of rising fuel prices. The scenario has the nature of upper limit at least among existing scenarios, but in many ways also more generally as a combination of factors that weigh heavily towards high consumption levels.
The Fig. My own feeling is that the estimate is, indeed, unrealistic. The marginal cost of coal required for that consumption would probably be far too high. Many of the scenarios assume that the fuel consumption of billions of people could keep on growing at a fast space over the rest of the century. China, India, and other large populous countries are affected also by other restrictions that make that type of growth highly unlikely. Hopefully they can find alternative positive paths of development. Copying, what the present rich countries did many decades earlier is not possible — or even desirable.
Limited energy supply is just one of many reasons for that. Pekka, I agree with your last paragraph in general — it may well be unrealistic. Another logical choice would be to pick a staring point say and this year and ask, how much richer we are now or how much more we earn in real terms compared to If the measurements of growth would be fully well defined we would get the same result in both ways, but even assuming that we had perfect statistics from all countries in , it would be impossible to compare that year directly with The impossibility applies both to inflation and to GDP and other similar measures.
Compounding annual changes gives an answer, but that answer gets less and less meaningful when the time span gets longer. Through this site I found two interesting papers of Partha Dasgupta from and , both on intergenerational justice and paradoxical questions raised by attempts to find right solutions for that. The real issue with coal is the quality of what is mined. If prices go up, there is a huge reserve of low quality coal lignite and even peat. Burning dirt is possible. BBD: Its standard [redacted] tactics to try and get either first comment, or last.
I monitor for that behavior, and bomb it where ever possible. Pekka: I find talks about wealth amusing. Every year my bank account says the same thing. In North America we are clearly wealthier… but if you look closely, people living in the burbs are slaves to multiple car payments, and rather high energy expenditures. Coal and the IPCC. This means that the reserves criteria have been too optimistic, but it also means that world coal reserves are a good upper bound on future production.
An IPCC scenario that burns two times or seven times the reserves is utterly at odds with the historical experience. Therefore, there is a tremendous incentive in China to switch to natural gas and nuclear…which is exactly what is happening. Regarding photovoltaics, in the U. China could supply all its electricity by covering relatively small amounts of the Gobi desert. Wikipedia on world coal reserves. Please provide some analysis that you think supports the RCP 8.
My request to Anders and to you, and every other person who has objected to my argument that RCP 8. You will also see on that page, the historical price of coal. If you read up on China they are closing coal mines that produce undesirable coal. A higher price will likely shift their position. They have been buying environmental sensors hand over fist for the last while. In any case, RCP 8. Firstly, AOM and Eli have said. My only point — which you seem completely unwilling to even consider — is that you may not be right.
From RCP 8. Mark is persistently ignoring comments that point to his construction of a strawman using RCP 8. In the past and at present, the vast majority of new demand for electricity is met by increased demand for coal. Historical fact. A global mean average temperature rise of 2. The SPM has replaced 2. In the paragraph of the Executive Summary we see a reference to Aggregate Impacts , but no similar numbers can be found in the text of that section. Figure References for all these estumates can be found in Table Uncertainty is such a convenient tool.
The lowest quality coal is lignite.
United States? South Africa? Rest of world? Total world? Oy vey. Presently, the humanity produces over exajoules of primary energy. What percentage of that is obtained from burning dirt? And in , according to RCP 8. How much of that do you figure will come from burning dirt? This technology has the potential to add huge quantities of recoverable coal reserves.
Of course, the coal will not be physically removed from its source but will still produce the same amount of CO2 has if it had bee mined and burnt on the surface. An example is the potential reserves of Norway, which does not even appear on your list of coal producing countries. It is estimated that Norway has billion tons of off shore coal which could be gasified.
This discussion is getting paradoxical. The less we can extract fossil fuels the more certain is the urgency of switching to alternative solutions. What would allow for a different policy is trust in the possibility of getting all non-conventional resources into use, and taking advantage of that possibility in disregard of the environment. Ah, thank you Pekka. Is it justified though? First of what is the rule for what can be taken in to the SPM?
Should it now have been supported in the text in the full text? Second limiting it to about 2 degrees sure limits the amount of studies available which would be really stupid and then perhaps not justified to make a statement about it at all. Or is the about supposed to take in to account all the 2. In that case using the wording they have should they not incorporate the uncertainty rage?
Which at least for one study does not the other use uncertainty?!? Pekka… Mark is trolling. Coal plants will convert to Natural Gas easily enough. Fracked natural gas emissions are currently higher than coal, this is because we vent so much methane on completion. New EPA regulations call for flaring of completions. On the other hand we are finding dirtier and dirtier read: cheap fossil fuels, as Dr.
Forrester Eli, and I pointed out. Kjel Aleklett a professor in Sweden that for some years know have been accusing IPCC for similar things that is beeing discussed here… did two blogs on the debate in Sweden… Google translated in the links.
It looks to me, however, that he has made two mistakes, both reducing the estimated costs of climate change. This is CJBlog post no. Given how cheap coal is, the ability to extract more at a higher price is easily possible. Bengaluru , India Our cow is healthy Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms. So, this is how mitigation will influence the annual growth rate : essentially, not much — so small as to almost be in the noise.
Bottom line is it is extremely difficult to predict the price for different sources and to try to figure out political strategies What will russia do know e. Will infrastructure be built in time and so on…. That would seem to not be correct. He also seems to be suggesting that we will soon have trouble providing enough energy for continued economic growth. Whichever way we decide now, new decisions will be made at all future times. Some consequences are irreversible, but few are that to a large extent.
Some decisions lead also to path dependence, they either open new paths or close others, but those effects are temporary and take often only a few years to reverse. Postponing action by one or two years means little, but repeating that every year for long may have a large effect. The well known problem of climate policies is that both the warming and the effects of the policies develop slowly and are masked by variability for years, for long enough to build up development that may be irreversible.
How natural gas compares with coal in CO2 releases depends on many things. The amount of methane leaks from fracking is a controversial question. Such claims are made, but also contested. Another advantage of gas concerns power plants. Natural gas is used also in gas turbines without the steam cycle, but such plants are not directly comparable with coal fired plants, but used for peaking power and other uses where coal is not practical anyway. There may be somewhat more potential in improving the efficiency of coal plants. First the important one… it really bugs me the way WG2 and WG3 reports are being used and the writing in them as I mentioned above… no one to bite on it?
Is this worth sending to the IPCC for clarification? About fossil fuels… It is not clear exactly where Aleklett stands just that he has been wrong on several occasions in the press. Yes, I find that argument a little frustrating. Why would the scarcity of fossil fuels just fortuitously happen to lead to the development of alternatives that just happened to occur at about the right time to prevent too much damage from climate change? I have just been looking at one of the new studies added by Tol in his correction, specifically Roson and van der Mennsbrughe Tol records it as showing damages at That means the net loss from all factors is 6.
Tol reports it as I am not certain that Tol has made any error here. He may have used a different temperature series to normalize the temperatures, and I may have misread the comment on labour productivity. It looks to me, however, that he has made two mistakes, both reducing the estimated costs of climate change. Given the overwhelming influence of that one study in reducing estimates of the economic impact of global warming by Tol, these mistakes, if real, are very significant.
Of course, the coal will not be physically removed from its source but will still produce the same amount of CO2 has if it had been mined and burnt on the surface. It avoids many of the environmental problems of extraction e. I was not aware until very recently of the potential for UCG exploitation of coal under the North Sea. But coal is currently being produced worldwide at a rate of more than 7. How much of that comes from UCG? When do you expect UCG production to hit, say 1 billion metric tons per year? And RCP 8. Do you think North Sea UCG is going to be producing multiple billions of metric tons of coal in ?
OK, add those potential countries to the list, and come up with an estimate:. What games do you play Mark? I just watched some interesting football matches today and in that game the goal posts are fixed. You seem to like playing a game with moving goal posts, does it have a name? You started your posts in this thread stating that there was not enough coal to get to RCP8. When I showed that there was both sufficient coal reserves and potential technology to satisfy these projections you replied by asking the irrelevant question of how much of the coal was being produced gasified by that technology today.
We are talking about the future, not today, please stop moving the goal posts backwards. I wrote no such thing. Yes, I asked you three questions about the future: 1 when do you think production of coal by underground gasification will reach a billion metric tons per year, 2 when do you think it will reach 5 billion metric tons per year, and 3 what do you expect the production of coal will be in the year for:. And he is certainly not alone in being fooled by the IPCC. Here are other excerpts that characterize the RCP 8. These represent very different views of how the world may look in , with RCP 2.
University of Washington says RCP 8. Although these scenarios were created in a different way and span a wider range of possible 21st century emissions, many of them are similar to scenarios used in previous assessments…. If that were true, you and everyone else here would be able to easily come up with production in various countries that added up to over 40 billion metric tons in the year But neither you nor anyone else has.
Still strawmanning frantically on RCP 8.
Still trolling. Read the thread, Mark. Bahner, stop being so disingenuous. There are lots of reserves which could be utilized with exiting or newly developed technology which would allow production of 40 billion tons per year of coal. Just because the production by UCG is close to zero today says nothing about how much could be produced by Note that the technology for producing the tar sands oil was invented long before it was actually used, 30 to 40 years for the Clark hot water process.
So stop moving the goal posts and stop introducing straw-men arguments. That is typical [redacted] tactics. Mark, stop moving the goalposts. The answer is that RCP 8. Forrester pointed out. All the data suggests that we will hit RCP8. Even if its by other means, ie other dirty technologies. Many technologies in use today were not possible or in use when the IPCC first started. Fortunately they get to adjust this every 5 years or so to take into account current trend, like fracking.
Fracking as is currently being done was invented in in Calgary Alberta Canada. Its dirty dirty dirty, but it reduced the cost of extraction by a factor of 10, so we use it. How much tar sands oil was produced in Alberta in ? How much is expected to be produced in the future? Answers 2 and 3 per this website: Alberta oil sands. More moving goal posts.
Your questions just show how [Mod: small snip. Ian wants to say incorrect ;- ] your arguments are. My example for oil sands in Alberta in is where we are now in regards to UCG. No one in would have been so bold as to predict 5 million barrels per day of oil from the oil sands. Thus no one can say how much energy coal will be produced by UCG by The whole point of my comments is to show that you are completely wrong when you try and insist that we cannot reach RCP8.
The ultimate level for CO2 concentration will only be decided by economics, availability of newer non CO2 technology or politics when the predicted problems become obvious to even diehard [redacted] like you. So stop spreading your FUD on a science blog.
Pingback: Sense and climate sensitivity, more evidence we are in for hot future marketspace. Pingback: How Sensitive is Climate? And another critique. A good one. Quite compelling. Pingback: Going for the record …and Then There's Physics. He is pushing replacement of the quadratic fit with a piecewise linear fit so that the only study showing benefit his study dominates.
He wrote that the editors of his correction refused to allow him to replace the quadratic with the linear. Major problem is that the model is predicated on a probably outlier Tol, , and Richard was unwilling to state exactly what sort of penalty term was used in fitting the model, so the work is not reproducible. I think it was this thread. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Straightforwardly explaining climate change, so you can read, react and then get on with your life. Skip to content. Like this: Like Loading Bookmark the permalink. May 5, at pm. And Then There's Physics says:. Tom Curtis says:. Richard Tol RichardTol says:. The headline numbers of WG2 and WG3 are thus directly comparable by design. Both WG2 and WG3 give percentages. Wotts No, that is the wrong conclusion.
In other words, ppm does not pass the benefit-cost test. You also appear to have ignored this caveat Losses are more likely than not to be greater, rather than smaller, than this range limited evidence, high agreement. Transfers work seamlessly to buses. Tag-on and off at the platform before and after boarding. Drivers are often confused by the many signs around Canberra that direct you to the "Town Centre". The unanswered question that the sign poses, is "Which Town? The city centre, also known as "Civic", is its own centre, but the other Canberra "towns" are Belconnen and Gungahlin to the north of the lake , and Woden, Weston Creek, Molonglo and Tuggeranong to the south.
Each of these towns has its own suburbs. You will see signs directing you to each of these towns, but once you get closer the sign will simply direct you to the "town centre". You need to know which town you are in for the sign to make sense. Most of the major attractions provide free parking. During working hours high demand, from both visitors and employees, can see parking spaces very limited in the Parliamentary Triangle which contains the National Library, Questacon, Old Parliament House, National Gallery, Commonwealth Place etc.
Occasionally, the same road has a different speed limit for traffic heading in opposite directions. The ACT also has the highest number of speed cameras per capita in Australia. Mobile speed camera vans operate in the ACT typically, but not always, on major roads ; these may be overtly or covertly parked, and are identified by a large white sign on the roof. School zones are rigorously policed. The main shopping and commercial area of Canberra is known as Civic, but you will never see a signpost to Civic. It is signposted as "City". Take change for parking meters in Civic if you want to park on the streets, or in the government parking lots.
Parking in the town centres is difficult on weekdays. It is also difficult to park at night in Civic. There are several multi-level carparks near the Canberra Centre with ticket pay-stations and pay-booths. All day parking in the Canberra Centre is cheaper on the rooftop level. You will need to collect a parking entry ticket from the first boom gate and then feed the ticket into the second boom gate as you enter the rooftop level. There are few fuel stations on the main roads; instead they tend to be located near local shops, off the main roads.
Look for the small blue fuel pump signs pointing off the main roads. Start looking well before you run too low. There are several petrol stations just east of Northbourne Avenue at Civic. Petrol is also more expensive in Canberra than Sydney. With Canberra unofficially crowned a bush capital, it is no surprise there is plenty to see when it comes to exploring its natural scenery. There are many hiking paths to explore around Canberra along with plenty of great vantage points to view the city, with many being accessible by car or by foot.
Wildlife are commonly found in the surrounding nature reverses, but on lucky occasions you may spot wildlife that venture into the suburbs. Kangaroos occasionally penetrate into Civic, and hop down Northbourne Avenue from time to time. If ever you encounter wildlife on your visit be sure to admire from a distance.
As the development of Canberra didn't take off until the s, the city has few noteworthy historic buildings. In addition to those which host major national institutions described elsewhere, the following buildings are considered historically significant:. The majority of the Australian Capital Territory is actually not Canberra city and there is a large area of national park encompassing the northern part of the Australian Alps. While most people don't spend any time outside of the city there is plenty to do if you want to get away from the museums and attractions for a while.
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As the national capital, Canberra is also home to a number of research-oriented facilities. The National Archives of Australia, Australian War Memorial and National Library of Australia are important research centres, including for people researching their family history.
Readers cards are available for free to Australian residents, though the institutions charge for photocopying. The National Museum of Australia, ANU and several government departments also maintain specialised archives and facilities which are available to researchers. The ACT Heritage Library serves as Canberra's state library and administers a collection of items related to the history of the territory.
Many of the most interesting shopping experiences are at the national institutions, almost all of which have specialist shops inside. The National Gallery has a superb range of art books, both overseas and indigenous. While Canberra is a bookish city, it lacks a stand-out bookshop. However, there are several good options:. Canberra has many fine eateries, but beware - many will be closed on Sundays. An unusual feature of the Canberra dining scene is that some of the city's best restaurants are hidden away in small suburban shopping centres - locals often nominate these as their favourites.
Canberra's many bars and clubs will be closed on Sunday nights and early into the week. Civic can appear to be a ghost town but there are areas such as Bunda Street where you will always find some happening funky bars. Canberra has a significant craft beer brewing scene, with Bent Spoke and Capital Brewing both having national prominence. They both have venues in Canberra where you can try their favourites and some seasonals. Bentspoke in Braddon near Civic, and Capital Brewing in a spacious outdoor setting in Fyshwick with plenty of room for the kids to play in an afternoon while the adults enjoy a brew.
Most of Canberra's hotels are in or around Civic or the suburbs which are adjacent to the Parliamentary Triangle. A few hotels have opened in the Belconnen, Gungahlin, Tuggeranong and Woden town centres. The availability of accommodation can be tight during periods in which Parliament is sitting - the schedule for parliamentary sittings is available here. Serviced, short-term apartments are widely available throughout Canberra and are available for stays as short as one night. Amenities typically include kitchen, washer and dryer, and separate bedrooms.
A full range of properties exist from budget to 5 star. Canberra is a very safe city and enjoys one of the lowest crime rates in all of Australia. Take the usual precautions against opportunistic crime, however. Valuables should not be left in sight within unattended cars, especially overnight. Despite its apparent affluence, Canberra has people who live 'rough'. Particularly around Civic, it is not unusual to be asked for money. This is a well-organised activity targeting both visitors and locals: if you simply say that you don't have any money, the beggar real or fake will usually move on.
Once you leave Civic, Canberra is fairly spread out. For much of the year, evenings can become cold and windy fairly quickly. Similarly, when traveling on such routes in between city centres, or when in the bush, it is possible not to see any one else for an entire journey. Have a map and appropriate clothing. On hot days, carry water. For bicycle riders, having the means to fix a puncture, and having proper lights is necessary in Canberra. If you go bushwalking, don't count on mobile phone reception. This is especially the case for tracks in the parks located outside the Canberra urban area.
If you're walking in those areas, carry an alternate form of communication such as a personal locator beacon in case you or a member of your party needs assistance. Do not swim in the lakes including Lake Burley Griffin until you check online , as low water quality can make doing so unsafe. Few Canberrans ever swim in the lakes due to algal blooms in summer, but water quality is now higher than it used to be.
Death cap mushrooms Amanita phalloides are common in many Canberra suburbs, and ingestion of a single one can cause death. Being the 'bush capital', you might encounter wildlife, even in the city areas. An Eastern Grey Kangaroo can grow over 2m tall, taller than a very tall man, and can seriously injure you. Do not get too close, especially to a mother with a joey, and appreciate them from a distance.
Keep an eye out for kangaroos when driving, especially at night. The National Library of Australia provides free Wi-Fi and free internet access on 40 computer terminals webmail is blocked on some computers, so ask the staff to show you which ones you can access webmail from.
Membership or proof that you are not a resident of the ACT is required to use the computers, and you may have to book a few hours in advance due to high demand.